[FoodforU.ca]

COOKING TERMS




Aioli - (garlic mayonnaise) is a delicious accompaniment to cold or hot grilled vegetables, steamed or boiled artichokes, boiled potatoes, and grilled or baked fish and shellfish.


À la Nage - Cooking à la nage means poaching food, usually seafood, in a court bouillon and serving the court bouillon and the vegetables around the food as part the garniture. When making a court bouillon to use for cooking à la nage, cut the vegetables in a decorative manner, such as julienne


Albumen - A synonym for egg white.


Al dente - An Italian expression applied in all western kitchens to pasta cooked just until enough resistance is left in it to be felt by the tooth. Fresh pasta can never by cooked al dente as it is too soft. The expression is also applied to vegetables that have been cooked crisp by steaming, boiling, or stir-frying.


Arborio - The name given to some of the best short-grained rices grown in the Po Valley of Italy, and used to prepare risotto.


Aromatics - Plant ingredients, such as herbs and spices, used to enhance the flavor and fragrance of food.


Arrowroot - A fine starch extracted from the rhizomes of plants of the genus Maranta.


Aspic - A clear jelly made from stock or occasionally from fruit or vegetable juices.


Bain-marie - A bain-marie is a pan of water that is used to help mixtures such as custards bake evenly and to protect them from the direct heat of the oven or, in some cases, the stove.


To Bake - to cook in the oven. The terms baking and roasting are often used interchangeably, but roasting usually implies cooking at a higher temperature at least at the beginning to get the surface of the foods to brown.


Barbecue - a cooking method involving grilling food over a wood or charcoal fire. Usually some sort of rub, marinade, or sauce is brushed on the item before or during cooking.


Basmati - The name of the most deliciously flavored long-grain rice from India.


Baste - To moisten food during cooking with pan drippings, sauce, or other liquid. Basting prevents foods from drying out.


Baster - A large kitchen syringe used to baste meats with their own gravy, another liquid, or melted fat.


Batter - A mixture of flour and liquid with the addition of flour, eggs, and sometimes fat, used to prepare cakes, muffins, pancakes, crepes, and quick breads.


Battuto - A combination of chopped raw vegetables for saucing, typically carrots, celery, onion and/or garlic, and parsley that is the foundation of many Italian sauces and other dishes.


Bavarian - A type of custard made by folding together whipped cream and a flavorful liquid mixture, usually a creme anglaise flavored with vanilla, coffee, chocolate, or a fruit puree.


To Bard - To tie bacon or pork fat over a joint of meat or poultry before it is roasted to prevent it from drying out during cooking.


Béarnaise - A warm, emulsified egg and butter sauce similar to hollandaise, but with the addition of white wine, shallots, and tarragon.


Beat - To agitate a mixture with the goal of making it smooth and introducing as much air as possible into it.


Bechamel - A classic white sauce made with whole milk thickened with a white roux, and flavored with aromatic vegetables.


Beurre Blanc - A rich butter sauce made by whisking butter into a reduction of white wine, white wine vinegar, and shallots, and sometimes finished with fresh herbs or other seasoning.


Bisque - A soup based on purees of vegetables, or crustaceans. It is classically thickened with rice and usually finished with cream.


To Blanch - A method of cooking in which foods are plunged into boiling water for a few seconds, removed from the water and refreshed under cold water, which stops the cooking process. Used to heighten color and flavor, to firm flesh and to loosen skins.


Bocconcini - Fresh Italian mozzarella balls sold in a water or brine solution. Available from delicatessens and supermarkets.


Bouillabaisse - Mediterranean seafood soup.


Bouillon - French, for broth. Refers to the liquid resulting from simmering meats, vegetables, and aromatics in water until the meats have lost all their nutritional elements to the water and the broth can jell upon cooling.


Bouquet Garni - A bundle of parsley stems, dried thyme, and a large bay leaf, tied together and left to float freely in broth, stock, or sauce.


Braise - To cook in a small amount of liquid (also called stewing or pot roasting). Usually, the purpose of braising is to concentrate the food's flavors in the surrounding liquid so that it can be made into a sauce, or allowed to reduce so that it coats or is reabsorbed by the foods being braised.


To Bread - To coat foods to be sautéed or deep-fried with flour or a breadcrumb mixture to create a crust.


To Brine - A salt, water, and seasoning solution used to preserve foods.


Brioche - The famous flour, egg, and yeast cake of northern France, which is now made in one form or another everywhere.


Brisket - A cut of beef from the lower forequarter, best suited for long-cooking preparations like braising.


To Broil - To cook with a direct heat source, usually a gas flame or an electric element above the food.


Broth - Broth and stock are interchangeable terms and mean a flavorful liquid made by gently cooking meat, seafood, or vegetables, often with herbs, in liquid, usually water.


Brown stock - A amber liquid produced by simmering browned bones and meat with vegetables and aromatics.


Buttercream - A mixture of butter, sugar, and eggs or custard.


To Butterfly - To cut and open out the edges of meat or seafood like a book or the wings of a butterfly.


To Caramelize - The flavor of many foods, including vegetables, meats, and seafood, is often enhanced by a gentle browning that caramelizes natural sugars and other compounds and intensifies their flavor. Meats for stews, for example, are usually browned to caramelize juices that if not caramelized are much less flavorful. Chopped vegetables, especially aromatic ones such as carrots and onions, are often caramelized nsometimes with cubes of meat in a small amount of fat before liquid is added to enhance the flavor of soups, stews, and sauces.


Cassoulet - Consists of partially cooked white beans blended with diverse meats, baked in a deep, round earthenware container.


Cheesecloth - A light, fine mesh gauze used for straining liquids.


Chevre - The French word for goat and by extension the cheeses made from goats milk.


Chiffonade - The fine ribbons obtained when several leafy vegetables or herbs are tightly rolled into a cigar shape and cut across into 1/16 to 1/8-inch wide shreds.


Chinoise - A very fine-meshed conical strainer used for straining refined sauces.


To Chop - To cut into irregular pieces. Foods can be chopped from very fine (minced) to coarse.


Chorizo Sausage - A spicy Spanish sausage containing a mixture of pork, pepper, and chilies.


A Chowder - A thick soup that usually contains potatoes.


Clarified Butter - Because butter contains milk solids which burn at relatively low temperatures, it can't be used to saute at the high temperatures required for browning most meats and seafood and some vegetables. Clarifying removes the water and milk solids in butter. You can purchase clarified butter called ghee at most larger grocery stores.


Colander - A perforated bowl made of metal or plastic that is used to strain foods.


A Compote - A dish of fruit cooked in syrup flavored with spices or liqueur.


Compound Butter - Whole butter combined with herbs or other seasonings and used to sauce grilled or broiled meats or vegetables.


Cornichon - Tiny pickles mixed with onions and other aromatics and preserved in seasoned pure wine or cider vinegar.


Coulis - A mixture often a fruit puree that has been strained of tiny seeds or pieces of peel so it is perfectly smooth.


Court Bouillon - A vegetable broth made by simmering onions (or leeks), carrots, celery, and sometimes, other vegetables, such as fennel, with a bouquet garni in water and, often, white wine or vinegar.


To Cream - To stir a fat usually butter and sugar together rapidly until the mixture looks white, aerated, and somewhat like stiffly beaten whipped cream. Or, that part of milk, containing 32 to 42 percent of butterfat in emulsion, that rises to its surface after the milk cools to room temperature and stands for several hours.


Creme Anglaise - Custard sauce or vanilla sauce.


Creme Brulee - Custard topped with sugar and caramelized under the broiler before serving.


Creme Fraiche - Heavy cream cultured to give it a thick consistency and a slightly tangy flavor. Substitute sour cream, if necessary.


Creme Patisserie - Custard made with eggs, flour or other starches, milk, sugar, and flavorings, used to fill and garnish pastries or as the base for puddings, pies, souffles, and creams.


Crepe - A thin pancake made with egg batter.


Croute en - Enclosed in a bread or pastry crust.


Crudites - French for a mixture of sliced and shredded vegetables diversely dressed and served as a first course.


To Cure - To treat with an ingredient, usually salt and/or sugar, originally for the purpose of preserving foods by protecting them from bacteria, molds, etc.


Cube - To cut a solid food into squares of about 1/2" in size or larger.


Curry - A mixture of spices that may include turmeric, coriander, cumin, cayenne or other chilies, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, or garlic.


Custard - A liquid mixture that is combined with whole eggs, egg whites, or egg yolks, or a combination, and gently baked until set.


To Deglaze - To add liquid to a pan in which foods have been sauted or roasted in order to dissolve the caramelized juices stuck to the bottom of the pan.


Demi Glace - A mixture of equal parts of brown stock and brown sauce that has been reduced by half.


To Dice - To cut into cubes, unlike chopping which cuts foods into irregular pieces.


To Dredge - To coat a food with flour, any finely crumbled ingredient, or, in pastry, with fine sugar.


Dumplings - A small lump of soft leavened and seasoned egg, milk, and flour dough, shaped with two spoons or from a pastry bag fitted with a nozzle. Usually it is poached in simmering water, but can be cooked in a stew.


Dutch Oven - A cast-iron pot used for the preparation of stews, braises, and pot-roasts.


Duxelles - A medium-fine shallot-scented mushroom hash.


Egg Wash - A mixture of egg or egg white, oil, and water brushed over floured items, which are then deep-fried or pan-fried in clarified butter or oil.


Emulsion - An emulsion is a smooth mixture of two liquids, such as oil and water that normally do not mix. Mayonnaise, beurre blank, hollandaise, cream sauces, vinaigrettes, and bechamel sauce are examples of emulsions.


Espagnole - Brown sauce made with brown stock, caramelized mirepoix and tomato puree and seasonings.


Essence - A concentrated flavoring extracted from an item.


Etouffe - A cooking method similar to braising in which items are cooked with little or no added liquid in a pan with a tight-fitting lid, often a Cajun stew is called this as well.


File' - Ground sassafras leaves used to give the Southern gumbos their distinct flavor.


Fines Herbes - A mixture of chervil, chives, parsley, and tarragon.


Fish Sauce - Clear, amber-tinted liquid that is drained from salted, fermented fish. A very important flavoring in Asian cuisine.


To Flambe - To ignite a sauce or other liquid on a dessert so that it flames.


Flan - A liquid or semi liquid mixture, held together with whole eggs, egg whites, or egg yolks, that is gently baked in a mold or pastry shell. Quiches, creme caramel, and creme brulee are examples of sweet flans. Any puree, or pureed soup, can be converted to a flan with the addition of egg.


Flute - To make decorative indentations around the edge of pastries, vegetables or fruit.


Foie Gras - The livers of geese and ducks that have been force-fed a mixture of corn, lard, and salted water.


To Fold - To incorporate an egg-white foam into an egg yolk foam or a flour batter without deflating it so that it retains its full leavening power.


Forcemeat - A mixture of chopped or ground meat and other ingredients used for pates, sausages, and other preparations.


Fricassee - A fricassee is almost always a stew in which the meat, usually poultry, is cut up, lightly cooked in butter, and then simmered in liquid until done.


Frittata - A flat Italian baked or sometimes half-fried / half-baked omelet.


Fritter - Any food coated with a batter or crumbs and deep-fried.


Fry - To cook in a hot fat.


Ganache - A mixture of grated or finely chopped chocolate, black or white, and scalded heavy cream, whisked on medium speed until completely cool.


Garnish - To add an interesting and completely edible item to a plate to make it look more attractive; or any such edible item.


Genoise - A sponge cake made with whole eggs, used for layer cakes and other desserts.


Gherkin - A small pickled cucumber.


Giblets - The neck, heart, gizzard, and liver of poultry.


Glaze - To give food a shiny surface by brushing it with sauce, aspic, icing, or another appariel. For meat, to coat with sauce and then brown in an oven.


Gnocchi - Gnocchi are starchy dumplings that are made in various shapes. There are two basic types of gnocchi: those based on potatoes and those based on flour or cornmeal.


Grand Sauce - One of several basic sauces that are used in the preparation of many other small sauces. The grand sauces are - demi-glace, veloute, bechamel, hollandaise, and tomato.


Gravy - A gravy is an American-style jus that has been thickened with a roux. This roux can be made using butter and flour or by cooking flour into some of the fat skimmed off the jus. Cornstarch mixed with a little water can also be whisked into the jus and the jus brought to a simmer to get the cornstarch to thicken. Once the gravy is thickened, other ingredients, such as herbs or chopped giblets, can be added to it to give it extra flavor. Vegetable purees can also be used to thicken a natural jus and turn it into a flourless gravy. Garlic, roasted along with meats and poultry, or separately, is excellent pureed and whisked into the jus to thicken it.


To Grill - To cook above the heat source (traditionally over wood coals) in the open air.


To Grind - To pass meats or nuts through a grinder or a food processor to reduce to small pieces.


Haloumi - Firm white cheese made from sheep’s milk. It has a stringy texture and is usually sold in brine.


Haricot - French for bean.

Harissa - A hot paste of red chilies, garlic and olive oil. Available in tubes or jars.


Hash - Chopped, cooked meat, usually with potatoes and/or other vegetables, which is seasoned, bound with a sauce, and sauted. Also, to chop.


Hoisin Sauce - A thick, sweet-tasting Chinese sauce made from fermented soy beans, sugar, salt, and red rice. Used as a dipping sauce or glaze.


Hollandaise - One of the Grand or Mother sauces. It is made with a vinegar reduction, egg yolks, and melted butter flavored with lemon juice.


Infuse - To steep or heat gently to extract flavor. For example to put a vanilla pod into sugar infuses the sugar with vanilla flavor.


Jambalaya - A Cajun and Creole composition of rice, smoke sausage, cubed ham, aromatics, and any meat that interests the cook.


Jardiniere - French for a main course made mostly of new spring vegetables, like lettuce, peas, green beans, carrots, turnips, and flavored with bacon or salt pork. It may also contain baby artichokes and young celery and fennel hearts, or cauliflower.


Julienne - To cut into long thin matchstick size strips.


Jus - The natural juices released by roasting meats and poultry.


Kaffir lime - A variety of lime with a knobby outer skin. The fragrant leaves are crushed or shredded and used in cooking, and the limes are used for their juice, mainly in Thai and Indian cuisine.


Kosher - From the Hebrew kasher. When talking about food, to prepare it at every stage in strict observance of the Jewish dietary laws. When talking about salt, kosher salt is a coarse salt that does not contain magnesium carbonate.


Lard - To insert strips of fatback into a piece of meat to be braised, using a special cutter with a hollow blade called a lardoir. Also, to wrap a tenderloin of beef in a thin sheet of fatback before roasting it.


Lasagne - Wide strips of thin pasta.


Lemongrass - A tall, lemon-scented grass, used in Thai cooking.


London Broil - A large steak generally grilled or broiled and cut out of the rib cap, flank, or chuck of beef.


Low-fat Milk - Partially defatted milk containing 1 to 2 percent fat.


Lox - Yiddish word derived from the German word lachs for salmon and the name of salt-cured belly of salmon.


Lyonnaise - Lyons style, with onions and usually butter, white wine, vinegar, and demi-glace.


Mahimahi - A firm-fleshed fish with a light, delicate flavor.


Mandoline - A slicer that can be fitted with diverse cutting blades.


Marinade - A mixture of ingredients used to flavor and moisten foods. May be liquid of dry. Liquid marinades are usually acidic based and dry marinades are usually salt based.


Marinate - To combine foods usually meat or seafood, and occasionally vegetables—with aromatic ingredients in order to flavor the food.


Marsala - An Italian fortified wine made in the vicinity of Marsala in Sicily.


To Melt - To liquefy a fat or a gel by heating it.


Meringue - Egg whites beaten until they are stiff, with added sugar or sugar syrup, used as a topping or shaped and baked until stiff.


Mince - To chop very fine.


Mirepoix - Many cooking preparations, particularly braises, stews, roasts, and soups, call for sweating various mixtures of chopped aromatic vegetables before liquid is added. These mixtures are designed to add freshness and flavor to meats and seafood. The best-known mixture is the French mirepoix, a mixture of 2 parts onion, 2 parts carrot, and 1 part celery, but other countries and regions have their own variations. Italy has its soffritto (onion, carrot, celery, and usually, garlic). Spain has its sofregit and sofrito (onion, carrot, celery, ham, and sometimes tomato). Indonesia has bumbu (garlic, shallots, spices, and shrimp paste).


Mirin - Heavily sweetened rice wine used as cooking wine. You can substitute sweet white wine.


Miso - A thick paste made from fermented and processed soy beans. Red miso is a combination of barley and soy beans and yellow miso is a combination of rice and soy beans.


Mix - To combine ingredients by hand or with a mixer with the goal of blending them well and uniformly together.


Mousse - A general term that can describe any mixture lightened with something airy, usually beaten egg whites or whipped cream.


Mousseline - A sauce made by folding whipped cream into hollandaise. Or, a very light forcemeat based on white meat or seafood lightened with cream and eggs.


Mozzarella - Italian cheese made of pasta filata, a cheese paste that pulls into strings when cooked to approximately 96 to 98 degrees F.


Napoleon - A pastry made with alternating layers of puff pastry and a cream of your choice and glazed.


Nori sheets - Dried seaweed pressed into square sheets. Used for nori rolls, soups and Japanese cuisine.


Oeuf - An Egg


Omelet - Beaten eggs that are cooked in butter, then rolled or folded into an oval. They may be filled with any variety of ingredients before folding.


Oyster Mushrooms - Thin-ridged, delicately flavored, cultivated mushrooms with a slight taste of oysters.


Paella - A Spanish dish of rice cooked with onion, tomato, garlic, saffron, vegetables, and various meats, including chicken, chorizo, and/or shellfish.


Panfry - Most cooks use the terms panfry and saute interchangeably, but strictly speaking, there is a difference. Although both terms refer to cooking in a small amount of hot oil, butter, or other fat, sauteing means to toss foods over high heat, while pan-frying describes cooking pieces of meat, seafood, or large pieces of vegetables in a hot pan, turning with tongs, a spatula, or a fork only once or twice.


Pan gravy - A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from a roast and combining them with a roux or other starch and additional stock.


Papillote - Food wrapped in parchment paper for aluminum foil and baked in an oven where it will steam in its own moisture and that of any vegetable added to the package to flavor the meat.

Parboil - To cook partially in boiling water.


Parchment paper - Heat-resistant paper used in baking to line pans. It does not need to be buttered or greased, and it keeps rich cookies from losing their shape and from sticking to the pan.


Paring knife - A short knife used for paring and trimming fruits and vegetables. Its blade is usually 2 to 4 inches long.


Parmigiano Reggiano - The king of Italian hard-grating cheeses made from cows milk.


Pasta - The Italian generic name for all forms of alimentary pastes made from a mixture of flour, semolina, and whole eggs or egg whites, but no water, as opposed to macaroni, which contains water and no eggs.


Pasticcio - A baked dish of pasta and other ingredients, moistened with one or more sauces.


Pâté à choux – Cream puff paste, made by boiling a mixture of water, butter, and flour, then beating in whole eggs.


Pâté brisee – Short pastry for pie crusts.


Pâté en croute – Pâté baked in a pastry crust.


Pecorino - A hard grating cheese derived from eweacs milk, mostly made in the Roman Lazio countryside and Sardinia.


Persillade - Finely or coarsely chopped mixture of garlic and parsley.


Pesto - From the Italian pestare, a verb that means to pound or crush. Pesto is traditionally made of crushed fresh basil leaves pounded with garlic, Pecorino, either pine nuts for walnuts, and olive oil.


Phyllo dough - Pastry made with very thin sheets of a flour-and-water dough layered with butter and / or crumbs; similar to strudel. Also called filo dough.


Pilaf - A technique for cooking rice in which the rice is sauted briefly in butter, then simmered in stock or water with various seasonings.


To Poach - To cook completely submerged in barely simmering liquid.


To Puree - To work or strain foods until they are completely smooth.


Quenelle - A paste made of fish, poultry, or veal meat mixed with eggs, cream, panade, and/or beef suet. Or, an oblong dumpling made from such a paste or other more modern and lighter pastes, shaped between two spoons, poached in stock, and served with a sauce and garnish.


Quiche - Originally a pie made with a butter crust and filled with eggs beaten with heavy cream and very smoky bacon. American cooks have created a plethora of recipes for quiche.


Quick bread - Bread made with chemical leaveners, which work more quickly than yeast.


Ragout - A Stew.


Ragá - A complex meat sauce that may or may not contain tomato.


Ramekin - A small, ovenproof dish, usually ceramic.


Ratatouille - An ancient Mediterranean mixture of vegetables cooked slowly until they make a well-bound compote.


Reduce or Reduction - The technique of cooking liquids down so that some of the water they contain evaporates. Reduction is used to concentrate the flavor of a broth or sauce and, at times, to help thicken the sauce by concentrating ingredients such as natural gelatin.


Refresh - To rinse just-boiled vegetables under very cold water to stop their cooking.


Resting – Roasted meats should not be served straight out of the over, but should be allowed to rest in a warm place for 20 to 30 minutes, loosely covered with aluminum foil. (The foil keeps the meat warm, loose wrapping ensures that the outside of the meat doesn’t steam and lose its crispness.) Resting allows the meat to relax so the juices become redistributed in the meat and aren’t squeezed out onto the platter during carving.


Ricotta - A fresh, creamy white cheese, smoother than cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet flavor. It is available in whole milk and part-skim milk versions, and is often used in lasagna and stuffed pastas. A little can be stirred into a sauce to add richness as well as creamy body. Refrigerate and use within a week.


Risotto - Risotto is a creamy rice dish made with short-grain or Arborio Italian rice. The rice is gently cooked in butter or olive oil. Liquid, usually broth, is then added a small amount at a time until the rice is cooked and bathed in creamy liquid. Risotto must be stirred almost constantly to release the starch from the rice so the starch thickens the broth, giving the dish its characteristic creamy consistency.


Roast - The purpose of roasting is to create a golden brown crust on whatever it is we are roasting and, at the same time, make sure the meat, fish, or vegetable properly cooks in the center. When roasting, no liquid such as broth, wine, or water comes in contact with the food only hot air, or, if the roast is being basted, hot fat. Roasting is both simple and complex and simple because there's very little to do except slide the food into the oven; complex because if the temperature isn't correct, the food may never brown or cook properly.


Roma - Also known as egg tomatoes. Oval-shaped tomatoes, which are great for cooking and eating.


Romano cheese - A hard, salty grating cheese. Pecorino Romano is the best known, and is made with sheeps milk, while many other types are made with cows milk or a blend of both cow and goats milk. Grate as you would Parmesan and use as a tangy accent for pasta dishes.


Roulade - A slice of meat or fish rolled around a stuffing.


Roux - A mixture of flour and butter used to thicken sauces, soups, and gravies. Usually the butter is cooked with the flour in a heavy-bottomed pan over medium heat. Most roux are white roux, made by cooking the flour for only a minute or two. Brown roux made by cooking the flour until pale brown to dark brown is also used in many recipes, especially Cajun cooking.


Sabayon - A light, frothy mixture made by beating egg yolks with water or other liquid over gentle heat.


Sake - Japanese fermented rice wine. Used in cooking to tenderize and add flavor. Store in a cool, dark place and use soon after opening. Substitute dry white wine.


Salsa - Tomato sauce or other type of sauce flavored with a fairly wide variety of ingredients.


Sashimi tuna - Finest quality tuna cut in an Asian or Japanese style. It is very tender and used raw in Japanese cuisine.


Saute - To cook over high heat in a small amount of fat in a saute pan or skillet.


Scald - To heat milk just below the boiling point. Or, to immerse a vegetable or fruit in boiling water in order to remove its skin easily.


Scallions - Immature onions (also called green onions) with a milk and slightly sweet flavor. Both the white bulb and the green tops can be used in cooking. The green tops also make an attractive garnish.


Sear - To brown the surface of pieces of meats and or fish by submitting them to intense initial heat.


Sea salt - Salt produced by evaporating sea water. It is available refined, or unrefined, crystallized, or ground.


Semolina - The coarsely milled hard wheat endosperm used for gnocchi, some pasta, and couscous.


Shallot - A member of the onion family, looking rather like large cloves of garlic. Shallots are used to infuse savory dishes with a mild, delicate onion flavor. Refrigerate for not more than 1 week to maintain maximum flavor.


Shred - To cut into fine strips. Shredding is similar to cutting into chiffonade but less precise.


Shitake mushroom - A meaty, Oriental variety of mushroom with an almost steak-like flavor, used in pasta sauces and salads for depth. Choose fresh shitakes that are plump and unblemished, and avoid broken or shriveled caps.


Simmer - To maintain the temperature of a liquid just below boiling.


Skim - To lift and discard any unwanted foam or fat from the surface of a stock, broth, sauce, or soup.


Smother - To cook in a covered pan with little liquid over low heat.


Sorbet - A frozen dessert made with fruit juice or another flavoring, a sweetener (usually sugar), and beaten egg whites, which prevent the formation of large ice crystals.


Souffle - A preparation made with a sauce base, whipped egg whites, and flavorings. The egg whites cause the souffle to puff during cooking.


Spatzle - Small flour, egg, and milk dumplings resembling fine noodles which are poached in water and then buttered.


Spring-form pan - A cake pan with a detachable bottom and a clamp on its side that can be released to easily unmold the cake. You make Tiramisu link in one of these.


Steam - To cook in steam by suspending foods over (not in) boiling water, in a covered pot or steamer.


Stew - A cooking method nearly identical to braising but generally involving smaller pieces of meat, and hence a shorter cooking time. Also, the dish prepared by using this method of preparation.


Stir-fry - Chinese technique of cooking think slivers of meat, shellfish, and vegetables in hot oil.


Stock - A rich meat, fish, or vegetable broth. It is used as a base for soups, sauces, and other preparations.


Sugo - A simple tomato sauce or other type of sauce comprised of relatively few ingredients.


Sun-dried tomatoes - Plum tomatoes that have been dried slowly to produce a chewy, intensely flavorful sauce ingredient. They are available in both oil-packed and dry-packed. For many recipes, the dried tomatoes must be soaked in hot water to soften them before using.


Table salt - Refined, granulated rock salt.


Tamarind paste - A product from the ripe bean pods of the tamarind tree. It can be purchased as pulp or in the more convenient form of tamarind concentrate ready to use.


Tart - A pie that has only a bottom crust.


Tempura - A Japanese method of cooking vegetables and shellfish. They are coated with a light cornstarch batter and deep-fried.


Terrine - A loaf of forcemeat, similar to a pate, but cooked in a covered mold in a bain-marie. Also, the mold used to cook this item.


Timbale - A small pail-shaped mold used to shape rice, custards, mousselines, and other foods. Also, a preparation made in such a mold.


Tomato paste - A concentrated essence of cooked tomatoes, sold in cans and tubes. It is commonly used to thicken and accent the flavor and color of sauces; however it is slightly bitter and should not be used alone or in large quantities. If you are using only part of a can, save the remainder by freezing it in a plastic bag.


Tournedos - A ¼ inch steak cut from the tenderloin.


Veloute - One of the Grande or Mother sauces. A sauce of white stock thickened with white roux. Also, a cream soup made with a veloute sauce base and flavorings that is usually finished with a mixture of egg yolks and cream.


Vinaigrette - The classic French salad dressing made of one part vinegar and three parts oil. Mustard and cream can be added if desired.


Wasabi - A spice that comes from a knobby green root of the Japanese plant wasbia japonica. A traditional condiment served with Japanese sushi and sashimi. It has the same warming or stinging nasal sensation as horseradish.


To Whisk - To beat a preparation with the goal of introducing air into it. Or, the balloon wire whisk often used to do so.


White chocolate - Cocoabutter flavored with sugar and milk solids.


White mirepoi - Mirepoix that does not include carrots and may include chopped mushrooms or mushroom trimmings. It is used for pale or white sauces and stocks.


White sauce - Traditional white sauces are divided into two types: those based on bechamel sauce and those based on veloute sauce. A basic bechamel sauce is made by adding hot milk to a white roux, and a basic veloute sauce is made by adding hot broth to a white roux.


White stock - A light-colored stock made with bones that have not been browned.


Wok - A round-bottomed pan, usually made of rolled steel, used for virtually all Chinese cooking methods.


Yogurt - Milk cultured with bacteria to give it a slightly thick consistency and sour flavor.


Zabaglione - A whipped custard made with egg yolks and sugar gradually diluted over heat with Marsala or other wine, fruit juice, or liqueur.


Zest - The thin, brightly colored outer part of the rind of citrus fruits. The oils make it ideal for use as a flavoring. Remove the zest with a grater, citrus zester, or vegetable peeler, becareful to remove only the colored layer, not the bitter-white pith beneath it.



French Cooking Terms




Bain-marie - A roasting pan or baking dish partially filled with water to allow food to cook more slowly and be protected from direct high heat. Used for custards and terrines.

Bavarois - Creamy pudding that is made with cream and eggs, then set with gelatin.

Beignets - Fritters. Small dollops of dough that are fried.

Beurre Manié - Butter and flour mixed together in equal parts and used to thicken liquids.

Beurre Noisette - Browned butter.

Bisque - A shellfish soup that has been thickened.

Blanquette - A stew made from meat that has not been browned or fried. Usually refers to stews made of lamb, chicken or veal.

Bouchées - Small puff pastry cases.

Bouillon - Broth or stock.

Bouquet Garni - A mixture of fresh herbs tied together with string and used to flavor stews, soups etc. It refers to a mix of parsley, bay leaf, thyme (and sometimes celery stalk). The bouquet is removed before serving.

Brunoise - Vegetables cut into very small diced pieces.

Canapé - An appetizer consisting of a small bread or biscuit base covered with a flavored topping.

Chapelux - Browned bread crumbs.

Chine - To remove the backbone from a rack of ribs.

Concasser - To chop roughly


Consommé - Broth that has been made clear.


Coulis - A thick sauce usually made from one main ingredient, such as raspberry coulis.


Court Bouillon - Flavored liquid used for cooking fish.


Crêpes - Very thin pancakes.


Croquettes - A mixture of potato with ground cooked meat, fish or poultry formed into balls, patties or other shapes and coated with a breading before frying.


Croustade - Bread piece dipped in butter and baked until it is crisp.


Croûte - Crust. Sometimes refers to a pastry crust, sometimes to toasted or fried bread.


Croûtons - Small cubes of bread used as a garnish is salads and soups.


Dariole - Small mould shaped like a castle used for moulding salads or baking cakes.


Déglacer - To deglaze, to loosen browned juices and fat from the bottom of a frying pan or saucepan by adding liquid, bringing to a boil and stirring. The liquid is usually water, wine or broth.


Dégorger - To extract juices from meat, fish or vegetables, usually by salting them, then soaking or washing. It is usually done to remove a strong taste.


Dépouiller - To skim off the scum that accumulates at the top of a stock or sauce.


Duxelles - Finely chopped raw mushrooms, used as a stuffing. Sometimes combined with chopped ham or scallops.


Entrecôte - Sirloin steak.


Entrée - The term used to refer to something served before the main course but is used now to refer to the actual main course.


Entremet - Dessert or sweet, but not including pastries.


Escalop - A thin slice of meat that is often pounded out to make it thinner.


Farce - Stuffing.


Flamber or Flambé - To set alcohol on fire.


Frappé - Something that is iced or set on or in a bed of ice.


Fricassé - A stew made from poultry, meat or rabbit that has a white sauce.


Glace de Viande - Reduced brown stock used to add color and flavor to sauces.


Gratiner or Au Gratin - To sprinkle the surface of a cooked food with bread crumbs and butter, and sometimes cheese and brown under the broiler. The finished food is referred to as au gratin as in au gratin potatoes.


Hors d'Oeuvre - First course or appetizer.


Jus or Jus de Viande - The juices that occur naturally from cooking.


Jus Lié - A thickened gravy.


Liaison - Ingredients used for thickening sauces, soups or other liquids.


Macédoine - Small diced mixed vegetables, usually containing at least one root vegetable. Sometimes also means a mixture of fruit, like fruit salad.


Marmite - French word for a covered earthenware container for soup. The soup is both cooked and served in it.


Mirepoix - A mixture of braising vegetables.


Moulè-â-manqué - A cake tin that is wider at the base than at the top and only about 1" in depth.


Napper - To coat, mask or cover with something.


Noisette - The word literally means "nut". It usually means nut brown in color. For example, beurre noisette is butter browned over heat until it becomes a nut brown color. It can also refer to boneless rack of lamb that is rolled, tied and cut into rounds. The word can also refer to hazelnuts.


Nouvelle Cuisine - A term that refers to the style of cooking that features lighter dishes with lighter sauces and very fresh ingredients.


Panade - A very thick mixture, usually made from a combination of flour, butter and milk, that is used as a base for dishes such as soufflés and fish cakes.


Paner - To coat with egg and crumbs before frying.


Papillote - A wrapping of parchment paper around fish or meat used for cooking. The paper retains moisture in the food.


Parisienne - Refers to potatoes molded into balls with a melon scoop and fried or roasted.


Pâte - A basic mixture or paste. Often refers to uncooked dough or pastry.


Pâté - A paste made of liver, pork or game.


Pâtisserie - A sweet or pastry, it also refers to a cake shop.


Piquer - To insert fat, bacon, ham etc into meat or poultry.


Poussin - A young chicken.


Quenelle - Minced fish or meat mixture that is formed into small shapes and poached. It also refers to a shape that the minced mixture is made into.


Ragoût - A stew


Réchauffée - Reheated food.


Repere - Flour mixed with water or egg white and used to seal pans when cooking food slowly, often used when cooking a ragoût.


Revenir - To quickly fry meats or vegetables in hot fat to warm them through.


Roux - Melted butter to which flour has been added. Used as a thickener for sauces or soups.


Rouille - Garlic and oil emulsion used as flavoring.


Sautoir - A deep frying pan with a lid, used for recipes that require fast frying, then slow cooking.


Terrine - Pâté or mixture of minced ingredients, baked or steamed in a loaf shaped container.


Timbale - A dish cooked in a mould that is higher than it is wide and has sloping sides.


Velouté - A type of sauce made from butter, flour, cream and stock.


Vol-au-vent - A large pastry case made of puff pastry that is usually used as a container for creamed dishes, such as creamed chicken.



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